Single combat would often have included the lance. The Christians are lucky that the Muslims were too busy with their bows and arrows to have them to hand.
Many Arab soldiers were Berbers, who although not accepted at the highest aristocratic levels of Caliphate society, nevertheless enjoyed full rights as citizens of the Islamic empire.
This image is based on this one, which unfortunately has not been referenced properly.
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graphica – fantastica – medieval
Program Manager and English consultant
I’m a program manager and academic at an Australian University.
I’m a teacher and researcher in the field of networked media with a particular interest in interactive, participatory and online forms of documentary. I have also engaged as an artist, writer, editor and producer of programmed and networked texts.
My new project is mayor, a graphic novel set in thirteenth century Spain: http://geniwate.com/?p=5880
I recently started a freelance business called Virtually English. I’m a content strategist and producer (across all forms of web media and SEO), I teach English as a foreign language, and I do academic editing for uni students and academics.