Single combat would often have included the lance. The Christians are lucky that the Muslims were too busy with their bows and arrows to have them to hand.
Many Arab soldiers were Berbers, who although not accepted at the highest aristocratic levels of Caliphate society, nevertheless enjoyed full rights as citizens of the Islamic empire.
This image is based on this one, which unfortunately has not been referenced properly.
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graphica – fantastica – medieval
English consultant and graphic novelist
Since leaving the higher education sector I’ve been focussed on thinking about education more holistically – I’m particularly interested in the interface between education and media, but I want to understand better how we can bring our traditional educational institutions to embrace the possibilities that the network and media are opening up. We need to reinvent education to suit the nature of our working lives, and our need to engage in routine lifelong learning. I use my research and writing skills to explore these issues. I consult on education issues and assist postgraduate students with their theses.
As an artist, my new project is Mayor, a graphic novel set in thirteenth century Spain. You can find out more about these activities in my blog: geniwate.com.