It used to be said that the Renaissance (amongst whom Leonardo da Vinci, vaguely referenced here) invented perspective, but of course, plenty of medieval art uses this technique to communicate distance and proportion.
Medieval art was not so ruled by perspective, however. For example, they practised a competing principle of using size to communicate the most important information in the image. So, for example, an image of knights seiging a castle will often display the whole castle as the same size as the knights, thus enabling the artist to supply more detail about the knights.
Modern art often borrows from medieval drawing techniques, and in a small way, sometimes I do too.
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graphica – fantastica – medieval